The Pandemic Schooling Mode and Assessment Outcomes Data Series

The Pandemic Schooling Mode and Assessment Outcomes Data Series explores how differences in access to full in-person instruction during the first full pandemic school year of 2020–21 relate to changes in student academic outcomes. Specifically, the Data Series presents changes in math and ELA proficiency on state assessments in Spring 2021 and Spring 2022, relative to Spring 2019, by level of access to full in-person instruction in the 2020-21 school year.


We envision the COVID-19 School Data Hub as a resource to help generate knowledge about how school learning models during the pandemic may have shaped a variety of outcomes for both children (including both academic and health outcomes) and adults. These preliminary white papers introduce the CSDH project and provide an example of how to explore and learn from the learning model data.

Correlates of January 2022 COVID-19 Schooling Disruptions

An examination of January 2022 school closures (based on Burbio data) by school closure information from 2020-21 and district demographic information. The data indicate that 2022 school closures are disproportionately affecting districts that had less in-person learning and more virtual learning in the prior school year.

February, 2022

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COVID-19 School Data Hub: Introduction and Data Availability Overview

An overview of the COVID-19 School Data Hub data and data collection efforts, including an initial look at variation in data availability across states.

September, 2021

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Pandemic Schooling Mode and Student Test Scores: Evidence from U.S. States

We estimate the impact of district-level schooling mode (in-person versus hybrid or virtual learning) in the 2020-21 school year on students' pass rates on standardized tests in Grades 3--8 across 11 states. Pass rates declined from 2019 to 2021: an average decline of 12.8 percentage points in math and 6.8 in English language arts (ELA). Focusing on within-state, within-commuting zone variation in schooling mode, we estimate districts with full in-person learning had significantly smaller declines in pass rates (13.4 p.p. in math, 8.3 p.p. in ELA). The value to in-person learning was larger for districts with larger populations of Black students. Publication replication materials will be provided upon publication.

Publication forthcoming in AER-I Insights in 2022

State Snapshot of Test Scores and Pandemic Learning Models: Virginia

Preliminary findings using Virginia’s Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments and CSDH learning model data to explore variation in student academic outcomes by districts’ predominant learning model in 2020-21.

September, 2021

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